Parties to the UNFCCC must work at Copenhagen toward establishing sound institutions and instruments that will serve as the foundation of international climate cooperation over the coming decades. One of the major tasks will be to assess the performance to date of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The CDM is an emissions trading offset system that allows developed countries to meet their Kyoto targets by investing in emissions reduction projects in developing countries, where greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement is expected to be cheaper than it is in developed countries.
This article highlights some of the significant challenges facing the CDM, including low environmental integrity, high transaction costs and the incompatibility of additionality requirements and sustainable energy promotion. The paper looks to wider global developments as its point of departure for considering solutions to these critical, technical challenges and suggests that there should be greater exploration of the merits of using Joint Implementation as the major project mechanism for the world’s largest emitters. Joint Implementation is the natural mechanism for project trading among countries with targets under Kyoto and fits a post–Kyoto vision that includes wider developing country participation in national targets. Moreover, Joint Implementation (particularly Track One Joint Implementation) offers solutions to some of the critical challenges facing the CDM, including its apparent lack of environmental integrity or additionality. The paper also suggests that a Clean Development Fund could be established to directly target sustainable development and poverty reduction in low-emitting, low-growth developing countries, rather than indirectly through the CDM.
|Copyright:||© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH|
|Quelle:||Issue 1/2009 (April 2009)|
|Preis inkl. MwSt.:||€ 41,65|
|Autor:||Grant Boyle |
Rudi M. Lof
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bifa-Text Nr. 45: Anpassung an den Klimawandel: eine Befragung oberbayerischer Unternehmen
© bifa Umweltinstitut GmbH (3/2010)
Das bifa Umweltinstitut untersuchte, in welchem Umfang sich oberbayerische Unternehmen vom Klimawandel betroffen fühlen, welche Aspekte dabei eine Rolle spielen und ob die Anpassung an die unvermeidbaren Folgen ein Thema ist.
Stakeholder-based Scenarios for Post-2012 Climate Policy: A Participatory Approach
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (10/2009)
Beginning in the early 1970s, the application of scenario analysis to environmental issues has been a well-established field. Since then, environmental scenario analysis has been used to examine many different scales and types of environmental problems, ranging from global sustainability to specific issues such as changes in emissions, air quality, or land cover in a specific region. Environmental scenarios provide an interdisciplinary framework for analyzing complex environmental problems and envisioning solutions for these problems by, for example, establishing a link between environmental science and policy.
Enhancing the Role of the CDM in Accelerating Low-Carbon Technology Transfers to Developing Countries
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (4/2009)
At the 3rd Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was introduced into the Kyoto Protocol as a project-based emissions trading mechanism. Through this mechanism, industrialised countries can comply with their Protocol commitments by investing in greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction projects in developing countries for which they receive Certified Emission Reductions (CERs). As per November 2008, the CDM project pipeline counts 4151 CDM projects (i.e. both officially registered and ongoing projects and projects in the process of validation by a designated operational entity). The CERs can be used, inter alia, by industrialised countries to comply with their Protocol commitments and by European installations to comply with their CO2 emission caps under the EU emissions trading scheme.
In the REDD: A Conservative Approach to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation
© Lexxion Verlagsgesellschaft mbH (10/2009)
In December 2009, the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol will meet in Copenhagen to discuss the international regulation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions after the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol expires in 2012. One of the key questions is whether, and if so, how, to include Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) in developing countries as an internationally regulated activity.
bifa-Text Nr. 42: CDM - Clean Development Mechanism in the waste management sector
© bifa Umweltinstitut GmbH (10/2009)
An analysis of potentials and barriers within the present methodological framework