Waste-to-Resource 2011

Organized by Wasteconsult International in Hannover, Germany
In collaboration with:
Universität Rostock
Supported by:
SAS and IWWG Mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste & material recovery facilities (MRF) with sensor based sorting technology

Relevance, Targets and Technical Concepts of Mechanical-Biological Treatment in Various Countries
Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang MĂĽller, Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Anke Bockreis
Different concepts of mechanical-biological waste treatment are explained alongside with parameters to assess the performance of the systems with respect to regulatory requirements.
A Comparison of two Biological Treatment Processes for Residual Waste Management
Tony Yates
The paper presents a technology comparison of MBT Anaerobic Digestion and MBT biodrying for treatment of residual municipal waste.
Potential of the Microbial Methane Oxidation to Mitigate Low Gas Emissions of Mechanically and Biologically Treated Waste
Dipl.-Biol. Sonja Bohn, Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Johannes Jager
In the framework of the MiMethox-project, financed by the Federal German Ministry of Education and Research, a process study on a MBT landfill is done. The results of a lysimeter study for qualitative and quantitative MBT landfill gas analyzes are introduced.
Composting of Municipal Solid Waste in the districts of Lomé (Togo): experimental process study and agronomic use potential
Komi Edem Koledzi, Gnon Baba, Gado Tchangbedji, Guy Matejka, G. Feuillade
This study concerns waste processing by composting in Lomé (Togo). It presents the composition of this waste, the treatment by composting of this waste recovered in the transfer sites and collected within individual households, an evaluation of its use as a fertilizer, and finally a market research to determine its economic value.
Biological mechanical treatment of municipal solid waste in China: lab and field application
Fan Lu, Na Yang, Prof.Dr. Liming Shao, Prof. Pinjing He
High water content and the putrescible property of municipal solid waste (MSW) could greatly deteriorate the sorting efficiency, deactivate the operations of aerobic treatment and incineration, as well as aggravate the landfill pollutions.
German GHG Mitigation Lighthouse Project MBT Plant Gaobeidian (PR China)
Dr.-Ing. Florian Kölsch, Dr. Mathias Ginter, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus Fricke
In June 2009, the German Federal Ministry of Environment granted a fund to the German company AWN Umwelt GmbH (Buchen) to establish a mechanical biological treatment plant in the City of Gaobeidian (PR China). The facility is seen as a lighthouse project for GHG mitigation.
Role of MBT in increasing the number of composting facilities in Iran
Dr Nader Mokhtarani, Jahesh Kimia Company Manigeh Khaleghi Sarnamy, Babak Mokhtarani
In I.R. Iran with respect to 0.64 Kg/Cap.day garbage, near 48,000 ton of solid waste is produced daily. Regarding to high percentage of biodegradable material in this waste, production of 10,000 ton/day of fine compost is possible. At this time, only 15 active composting plants are available in Iran and if all of them act with nominal capacity, only 12% of the total produced municipal solid waste will be processed and reminder will be disposed with the other methods.
Practice of Waste Management in the Arab Region
Dr.-Ing. Abdallah Nassour, Mohamad Al-Ahmad, Ayman El Naas
Almost in all Arab countries general waste management concepts are still in the initial stage. Partly suitable laws were passed and some administrative structures have been established, but technical implementation, management, monitoring and financing of appropriate waste management systems are still considered to be a major challenge.
Integrated Management of Municipal Solid Waste in Santiago de Chile – Recycling Treatment and Final Disposal
Dipl.-Phys. Klaus-Rainer Bräutigam, Dipl.-Ing. Tahnee Gonzalez
A detailed analysis of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago de Chile has been carried out within the framework of a research initiative of the German Helmholtz-Association.
Municipal solid waste treatment in Poland – facts and myths
PhD Magdalena Rybaczewska-Blazejowska
The experience shows that there are still numerous misunderstandings about the municipal waste sector in Poland and thus the intension of this paper is to present analytically the current state of MSW treatment in Poland.
Comparing the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Performance of Residual Waste Treatment Solutions
Nick Cawthorne, Sarah Trevers
Materials Recovery Facilities (MRF) and Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) take a fundamentally different approach to the management of residual waste as compared to Waste to Energy (WtE).
MBT/MRF state of art and possible development in Norway
M.Sc. Frode Syversen
Norway has implemented a modern waste management system in compliance with European directives. But there is potential for improvements. In 2010 the amount of mixed household waste disposed via landfilling amounted to about 5-6% of waste generated, due to a new landfill ban for waste containing 10% TOC or more. Source separation, recycling, biological treatment and incineration are common solutions. MBT facilities are not a part of the system so far.
Municipal Solid Waste sorting and treatment in Romania: strategies of energy recovery from two pilot case studies
Gabriela Ionescu, Dr.-Ing. Dipl. Elena Cristina Rada, Dr.-Ing. Adrian Badea, Dr.-Ing. Dipl. Marco Ragazzi, Dr.-Ing. Dipl. Tiberiu Apostol
In the past decade, one of the main topics analyzed in the waste management area is how to dispose of the large quantities of municipal solid waste (MSW).
Mechanical-Biological Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste as a component of the Integrated Waste Management Concept for Santiago de Chile
Env. Eng. (M.Sc.) Joachim Vogdt, Dipl.-Ing. Bastian Wens
Based on the results of pre-feasibility analysis for the recycling program “Santiago Recicla”, the following paper gives an overview of the potentials of mechanical and mechanical-biological pre-treatment options for integrated MSW management in Santiago de Chile (MSW quantities, MSW composition, current recycling activities, proposed recycling measures and mechanical pre-treatment). Also different logistical alternatives for the collection of recyclable materials, drop-off systems or curbside collection of biowaste, as well as the production of Refuse Derived Fuels are discussed.
Municipal Solid Waste Management Policies and Problems in Naples
Head of the Italian Trust Fund Stefania Romano
Waste management is gaining importance in today’s decision-makers’ agenda; the effectiveness of political actions on waste management directly affects the daily life of citizens, who are more and more sensitive to how waste plans are implemented and waste processes take place. Over the last decades waste started to be associated with management because of the need for plans and methodologies for its disposal; a procedure which requires specific and well-tailored policies.
Maximum utilisation of municipal solid waste with the efficient Maximum Yield Technology system
Dr.rer.nat. Georg Person, Dipl.-Ing. Matthias Schreiber
Against the background of increasingly scarce raw materials, the use of alternative resources is becoming ever more important. In this context, municipal solid waste is also gaining in importance as a resource.
Preparation of biological waste and municipal solid waste using the VMpress
Karl Dirkes
Municipal waste has always been considered a problem, something that no one wants to see, something to be removed and hidden as soon as possible. However, the mixed fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW), the materials that remain after separate collection of the recyclable components of urban waste, still contains large quantities of energy.
Current Status and Prospects of Mechanical-Biological Treatment in Germany
Thomas Grundmann, Dipl.-Ing. Michael Balhar
A total of around 25 % of urban wastes is pretreated by means of MBT technology (MBT = Mechanical-Biological Waste Treatment) in Germany. This technology is based on a material stream specific waste treatment. It means that the material properties of residual wastes - which are varying to a large extent - determine the selection and specification of treatment steps.
The impact of increased differientiate collection on existing MBT plant and possible upgrading scenarios: the experiences of a central Italy plant
Prof-Ing. Francesco Di Maria, Dr. Moreno Marionni
The management and the production of MSW has been interested by many changes, during the last twenty years, mainly related to the new policy strategies in recycling and recovering. A large part of the Italian existing MBT facilities operates since the 1990, designed when the waste quality and quantity were quite different from the current one.
Interaction of systems and feeding of bio methane into the gas pipeline network
Dipl.-Ing. Burkart Schulte
The Waste Management Center Pohlsche-Heide is responsible for the management of the waste generated from the 330,000 inhabitants and the commercial waste at the district of Minden-Lübbecke. This district is located in the east – north end of the state North Rhine-Westphalia.
Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste before Anaerobic Digestion - CAPEX and OPEX as model calculation
Dr.-Ing. Michael Langen
Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) before Anaerobic Digestion (AD) is highly considerable in terms of capital expenditure (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX). The paper determines different treatment options like “Standard” and “AdvancedBioSolids” and characterizes the treatment options. The “Standard“ option is relatively simple and comprises only few process steps. The “AdvancedBioSolids” option is more complex and refines the biosolid fraction by sorting of inorganic items and other non-digestibles in a multi-stage dry refining process.
Experimental Optimisation of Static Composting Reactors
Dipl.-Ing. Kay Weichelt
This study focuses on investigations for process optimisation of static dynamic reactors of the mechanical-biological waste treatment. This contains the process as self and the increase of the transparency of the whole control system. To achieve this, measurement equipment for temperature, gas composition and pressure was developed.
An innovative approach for grape marc treatment: biodrying before combustion
Simona Ciuta, Dr.-Ing. Dipl. Elena Cristina Rada, Dr.-Ing. Adrian Badea, Dr.-Ing. Dipl. Marco Ragazzi, Felix Ast
The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study on one of the possible uses of exhausted grape pomace/marc aimed to energy recovery.
UmrĂĽstung der MBA zur erweiterten Ersatzbrennstoffgewinnung
Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Wiegel
Durch Umstrukturierung der MBA auf biologische Trocknung des Unterkorns der mechanischen Aufbereitung kann ein trennfähiges (Trocken)Gut erzeugt werden, aus dem mit bekannten Verfahrenstechniken ein regenerativer Brennstoff ausgetrennt werden kann. Rd. 80 % des regenerativen Energiegehaltes im Unterkorn können damit zurückgewonnen werden. Je Tonne MBA-Input kann damit eine zusätzliche Minderung von rd. 250 kg CO2 erreicht werden.
Modifying MBT for Fuel Production
Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Wiegel
Compared to other treatment options for mixed municipal solid waste, the pure aerobic MBT cannot exploit the energy of the organic fraction, since it is simply biologically oxidized with the aim of inertization.
Mechanical Dewatering of Digestate - Necessity and Potential
Dr. Peter Schalk
Anaerobic digestion has become an established component of mechanical and biological treatment of municipal solid waste. However, anaerobic digestion does little to reduce the mass of solid waste in the form of biogas.
Large-Scale Composting of Biowaste and Bio-Organics from MSW by using the TAIM WESER Composting System
Dipl.-Berg.-Ing. Dietmar Polster, Dipl.-Ing. Michael Herken
Since almost two decades TAIM WESER GmbH (former WESER-ENGINEERING GmbH) is designing, building and commissioning composting-plants for treating curbside collected biowaste as well as the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in order to produce high quality compost for agricultural use or compost like output, a compost suitable to be used for e.g. road-greens, parks, re-greening of brown-fields or to fight against desertification in arid areas.
MBT solution with windrow technology – investigations of the process performance
Dipl.-Ing. Karsten Runge
The worldwide demand for simple MBT solutions is still increasing. During the study and investigation for new projects as well as for improvement of already existing facilities there is a demand for layout and technological design of the biological treatment process.
Adaption of a German MBT Process to the Boundary Conditions of Newly Industrialized Countries - Results of a pilot plant operated in Thailand
Sebastian Platz, Dr.-Ing. Uwe Menzel, Dipl.-Ing. Martin Schaub, Dr. Jochen Amrehn
A mechanical biological treatment (MBT) process for municipal solid waste (MSW), suitable for the boundary conditions of newly industrialized countries (NIC), was developed and tested in Thailand. The main purpose was to make the process simple, robust and economic. The process focuses on the production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) and a high biogas yield. The so-called BIOBUNK pilot plant consists of a shredder as mechanical stage and an aerobic mixed reactor as biological stage.
Effective treatments of household waste using the BHSRotorshredder
Dipl.-Wirtsch.-Ing. Christian Hein
The selective comminution of household waste covers a wide range with huge potential. Also a combination of impact crushing and cutting techniques is considered a positive aspect. This will enhance the product quality and increase the recovery rates of an MBT facility.
Modernization of MBT plant “KBA Hard” - Erection and commissioning
Dipl.-Ing. Reinhard Schu
In this paper we will describe the development of the SCHUBIO®-process for mechanical biological waste treatment as well as implementation of the first industrial scale SCHUBIO®-plant.
MBT Larnaka, Cyprus – Waste Treatment Technology from Komptech
Mag. Dr. Martin Wellacher
The MBT Larnaka has been set in operation in April 2010. The plants capacity is 200.000 t per year. The main purpose of the MBT is the reduction of landfill emissions from untreated municipal solid waste.
Release of VOCs and leachate during bio-drying process of MSW with high water content
Na Yang, Ning Qiang, Fan Lu, Prof.Dr. Liming Shao, Prof. Pinjing He
Two treatments were conducted to investigate the release patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and leachate during the bio-drying of municipal solid waste (MSW) by intermittent and continuous passive ventilation. The results showed that butyraldehyde was the major contributor to the VOCs emission, and it’s maximum concentration was 254 ppm (v/v).
Municipal Solid Waste bio-drying: odor problem of three configurations
Dr.-Ing. Dipl. Elena Cristina Rada, Dr.-Ing. Dipl. Marco Ragazzi
In the sector of mechanical–biological plants, odor is not related to the presence of only one compound. Thus the management of the related problems is not easy.
Economic Comparison of Landfilling with and without Anaerobic Pre-Treatment
Dipl.-Ing. Gerd Burkhardt, Dipl.-Ing. Nina MĂĽller, Dr.-Ing. Ludwig Streff
Up to the present most development banks (such as the World Bank or the German KfW) have sponsored in particular the fundamentals of waste management such as collection, transport and the orderly depositing of waste.
Efficient Desulphurization of Biogas based on a newly developed technology
Dr.-Ing. Jörg Stockinger
AD (anaerobic digestion) technology and biogas plants have been a great success in the near past and it will continue. This development is accompanied by an increasing relevance of the topic “desulphurization".
New findings regarding the analysis of chlorine in wastederived fuels
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Sylvia Schade-Dannewitz, Dr. rer. nat. JĂĽrgen Poerschke,
We are aware of the current strong interest in the energetic utilisation of waste-derived fuels (WDF). Rising energy costs are also boosting the substitution of fossil fuels with WDF.
Neue Erkenntnisse zur Chloranalytik von Ersatzbrennstoffen
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Sylvia Schade-Dannewitz, Dr. rer. nat. JĂĽrgen Poerschke,
Bei der Qualitätssicherung von Ersatzbrennstoffen ist der Chlorgehalt von besonderem Interesse. Grundsätzlich lassen sich die Chlorverbindungen in organische wie z. B. PVC und anorganische Formen unterscheiden, welche sich im thermischen Prozess unterschiedlich freisetzen.
Heating value of residues and waste derived fuels from different waste treatment methods
Dr. Ioannis-Sofoklis Antonopoulos, Assoc. Prof. Avraam Karagiannidis, Dr. Efstratios Kalogirou
Prevention of waste production at source, recycling of packaging waste and processing the organics are the main parts of the Hellenic waste management strategy. In the meanwhile recycling of packaging wastes may be compatible with incineration within integrated waste management systems.
Physical and chemical assessment of the stabilization of residual household waste before landfilling at Alveol, a French MBT plant (Bellac, Haute Vienne)
Thouraya Chantou, G. Feuillade, Denis Mausset, Guy Matejka, Jalal Bouzid
An evaluation of the mechanical biological treatment (MBT), used at center Alveol (Bellac, France) was performed in terms of mass decrease, of biogas emission reduction and of biologically treated waste stability.
Status and prospects of treatment technology for material and energy recovery from commercial solid waste
Dipl.-Ing. RĂĽdiger Oetjen-Dehne, Manfred Kanthak
A research project on behalf of the Federal Office for Environmental Protection aims to assess the quantity, the management and the aspects of resource preservation of commercial solid wastes.
Sensorbasierte Sortierung zur Erzeugung einer Deponiefraktion aus einer MBA-Schwerfraktion
B.Sc. Martina Meirhofer, Prof. Dr. Arne Michael RagoĂźnig, Dipl.-Ing. Manuel Sommer, Dipl.-Ing. Mag. Simone Pieber
Praxiserfahrungen und Vergleich verschiedener Aufbereitungsalternativen
Sensor-based Sorting Systems for the Generation of a Landfill Fraction out of the Heavy Fraction of a MBT Plant
B.Sc. Martina Meirhofer, Prof. Dr. Arne Michael RagoĂźnig, Dipl.-Ing. Manuel Sommer, Dipl.-Ing. Mag. Simone Pieber
Practical Experience and Comparison of Processing Alternatives
Splitting of heterogeneous waste by sensor-based sorting as a basis for optimized material-specific waste-routing
Dipl.-Ing. Mag. Simone Pieber, DI Dr. Arne Michael Ragossnig, Dipl.-Ing. Manuel Sommer, Alexander Curtis, Univ.-Prof. DI Dr. mont. Roland Pomberger
In the presented work material-specific sensor-based sorting was evaluated for its technical application on heterogeneous wastes on a pilot and a large scale, in order to optimize the routing options of waste streams in an economically attractive way.
Self-Ignition of deposits containing recycling materials – an Underestimated Phenomenon
Dr. rer.nat. Anka Berger, Dr. rer. nat. Simone KrĂĽger, Dir. u. Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Ulrich Krause
Fires on waste dumps, surface landfills, underground stowing or storage facilities of recycling factories may have multiple harmful effects on individuals on site and on environment.
Aufbereitung und energetische Verwertung der heizwertreichen M(B)A-Fraktionen in Deutschland
Prof. Dr. Michael Nelles, Dipl.-Ing. Michael Balhar, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Sabine Flamme, M.Sc. Jennifer GrĂĽnes
In Deutschland werden derzeit 46 MBA-Anlagen und etwa 20 bis 30 MA-Anlagen mit einer Gesamtkapazität von rund 8 Mio. Mg betrieben. Die meisten Anlagen verfügen inzwischen über fast 6 Jahre Betriebserfahrungen und haben sich zu einer wichtigen Säule in der Abfallwirtschaft entwickelt.
Processing and energy recovery of high calorific M(B)T fractions in Germany
Prof. Dr. Michael Nelles, Dipl.-Ing. Michael Balhar, M.Sc. Jennifer GrĂĽnes, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Sabine Flamme
In Germany, there are currently existing 46 MBT-Plants and about 20 up to 30 MTPlants operating a total capacity of around 8 million tons. Most of the plants meanwhile possess about almost 6 years operating experience and became an important part of Germany's waste industry.
Herstellung und Einsatz von Ersatzbrennstoffen (EBS) in Ă–sterreich
Em.o.Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Karl E. Lorber, Dipl.-Ing. Dr. mont. Renato Sarc, Univ.-Prof. DI Dr. mont. Roland Pomberger
Es wird über die österreichischen Erfahrungen bei der Aufbereitung, Qualitätssicherung und dem Einsatz von Ersatzbrennstoffen (EBS) in Mitverbrennungsanlagen berichtet und es werden darüberhinaus potentielle Probleme wie z.B. Brandrisiko und Anlagenkorrosion angesprochen.
Production and Application of Refuse Derived Fuels in Austria
Em.o.Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Karl E. Lorber, Dipl.-Ing. Dr. mont. Renato Sarc, Univ.-Prof. DI Dr. mont. Roland Pomberger
The contribution reports on Austrian experience in processing, quality control and industrial application of refuse derived fuels (RDF) in co-incineration facilities as well as potential problems such as fire risks and plant corrosion.
Decoding interdependencies between primary and secondary raw material markets by means of the Capacity Model
Mag. Dr. Hannes Klampfl-Pernold, Univ.-Prof. DI Dr. mont. Roland Pomberger, Ing. Mag. Gerald Schmidt
On the basis of the well-known life-cycle-concept the Capacity Model presents an explanation approach for the interdependencies between primary and secondary raw material markets alongside the life-cycle of different waste materials. Depending on site capacity and waste amount the price for a certain waste material is either determined by the disposal market or the energy and raw material market.
KOMPOFERM® - Modular Waste Transforming Systems for MBT Technology: Case Study MBT Varna (BG)
Dr.-Ing. Iris Steinberg
Bulgaria, like other new EU Member States, has a shortage of waste treatment capacity. This paper presents the MBT Varna, the first MBT meeting European standards in Bulgaria.
Optimization of MBT considering Energy Efficiency and Protection of Resources and Climate
Dr.-Ing. Ketel Ketelsen, Dr. rer. nat. Karsten Kanning, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Carsten Cuhls
In 18 out of 46 MBTs in Germany biological treatment of organic-containing fine fractions takes place with the aim of achieving the deposition criteria exclusively through aerobic rotting. Thus energy potentials contained in the fine fractions are not utilized.
Optimierung von MBA unter Energieeffizienz-, Ressourcen- und Klimaschutzaspekten
Dr.-Ing. Ketel Ketelsen, Dr. rer. nat. Karsten Kanning, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Carsten Cuhls
In 18 von insgesamt 46 in Deutschland betriebenen MBA wird die bei der Behandlung der Siedlungsabfälle verbleibende Restfraktion in Rottestufen biologisch oxidiert ohne Nutzung des Energieinhaltes der biogenen Abfallbestandteile. Im Rahmen einer Studie für das Umweltbundesamt wurde untersucht, in welchem Umfang mit der Nachrüstung von Rotte-MBA mit einer Vergärungsstufe die Energie- und Ressourceneffizienz dieser Anlagen deutlich verbessert werden kann und welche Auswirkungen sich auf die Wirtschaftlichkeit der MBA ergeben.


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