An Analysis of Carbon Utilisation Options in the Austrian Industry

Carbon dioxide contributes to the "Greenhouse Effect" and global warming. Nowadays a lot of efforts are being done to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to counter this effect. The strategies towards this target include the prevention von CO2, the reduction of the CO2 amount through efficient use of fossil fuels, such as the CO2 capture and storage or utilisation. "Carbon Capture and Utilisation" (CCU) technologies use carbon dioxide as a raw material for chemical and biological processes. Currently a lot of research and development work is carried out concerning these technologies.

The aim of this study was to identify the most appropriate CCU-options for the Austrian industries. A use-value analysis was applied to reach this task. The implementation of this analysis required a set of evaluation criteria. The findings of the literature research served as the basis for creating a list of evaluation criteria, which was then complemented with expert interviews. Following evaluation criteria were selected: capital expenditure, state of technology, operating costs, energy consumption, direct CO2 utilisation without capture, existing market for the end product, availability of secondary materials, time of CO2 storage in the final product, the conversion ratio of CO2 to secondary materials, the use of waste as input material, the use of land, and the production of end products in the same industry.
The second step of the analysis included the priorisation of these criteria. A web-based industry questionnaire provided the information needed to place these criteria in a hierarchy of importance. The identification of the survey participating industries was based on the emission data of the Federal Environment Agency. The emission-intensive industries in Austria include the steel industry, the mineral industry, in this case especially the cement and lime industries, the paper, chemical and refractory industry such as the energy industry. Fifty different companies were invited to participate in the survey and a total of 19 completed responses were received.
The evaluation criteria priorisation in combination to the potentials and limitations of each technology were used as a basis for use-value analysis. The analysis distinguished between five CCU alternatives: Microalgae, chemical feedstocks, methanisation, mineral carbonation and CO2 enhanced oil recovery. The analysis conceded following results: CO2 enhanced oil recovery, could be for all industries the best carbon dioxide utilisation technology and was ranked as first. The further prioritisation turned in most cases as follows: carbonation, methanisation and chemical feedstocks. Two of the examined industries resulted in a different ranking. The first exception was the refractory industry, here was the methanisation ranked second, followed by the production of chemical feedstocks and the carbonation. The second exception was the cement and lime industries. In this case carbonation was ranked second followed by the production of chemical feedstocks and methanisation.
The results presented in this study can support the industries in their CO2 decision making management and furthermore visualize in which technologies research and development efforts should be intensified.

Copyright: © Lehrstuhl für Abfallverwertungstechnik und Abfallwirtschaft der Montanuniversität Leoben
Quelle: Depotech 2012 (November 2012)
Seiten: 4
Preis inkl. MwSt.: € 2,00
Autor: Vassiliki Theodoridou
C. Niederseer

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