MasterÂŽs Thesis 2010

Comparison of environmental performance of waste-to-energy (WTE) plants in France with Denmark and Germany
The MSW combusted in the operating 127 WTE plants of France amounts to 16.1 million tons. All of these plants meet the particulate matter, mercury,dioxins, and other emission standards of E.U. and France, with the exception of NOx where the average WTE emission in 2006 was about 25% higher than the E.U. standard of 200 mg NOx/Nm3 of stack gas.
Current State and Potential for Increasing Plastics Recycling in the U.S.
Jawad A. Bhatti
Plastics are a relatively new man‐made material that provides vast material benefits throughout their useful lifespan. However, their end of life disposal currently leaves much to be desired. The U.S. EPA estimates that 30 million tons (16.8% according to the EPA estimate of MSW and 8% according to the BioCycle/Columbia national survey) of the municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in the US annually is in the form of plastics.1 Of this amount only 7% is recovered for recycling , mostly in the form of polyethylene, and roughly 10% is combusted in waste‐to‐energy (WTE) facilities to generate electricity. The remainder of plastic wastes are landfilled, which is clearly a loss of non‐renewable, fossilbased resources. Also, plastics litter in some cases poses a threat to human health and also threatens other ecosystems. For example, there is an estimated 100 million tons of plastic litter in the oceans, with millions more tons added each year.
Technical and economic analysis of Plasma-assisted Waste-to-Energy processes
Caroline Ducharme
Increasing interest is focusing on plasma-assisted gasification applied to the treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW), especially as it may be a new way to increase Waste-to-Energy (WTE) worldwide. The aim of this thesis was to investigate different such processes under development and their technical and economic viability.
Tertiary Recycling of Waste Plastics: An Assessment of Pyrolysis by Microwave Radiation
Timothy T. Sharobem
In 2008, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Americans generated more than 254 million tons of municipal solid wastes (MSW) with plastics comprising 12.1% of the total amount. Of this waste component, only 6.8% was recycled.
Anaerobic digestion of food waste: Current status, problems and an alternative product
Ljupka Arsova
In recent years there has been increased interest in diverting the food waste fraction of the municipal solid waste (MSW) from landfills, due to the high decomposition potential and production of methane as a final product. Recently, anaerobic digestion (AD) has been recognized as one of the best options for treating this waste stream since it results in two valuable final products, biogas and compost that may be utilized for electricity production and as soil fertilizer respectively. Also, the wastewater utilities have shown increased interest for identifying an alternative supplemental carbon source to the use of methanol for enhancing the process of denitrification and meeting regulatory nitrogen standards.
A Study on Performance and Emissions of a 4-stroke IC Engine Operating on Landfill Gas with the Addition of H2, CO and Syngas
Jechan Lee
Fossil fuels supply nearly 80% of world energy demand. Burning of fossil fuel always has associated with it emissions in the forms of nitrogen oxides (NOX), sulfur oxides (SOX), carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (UHC). These emissions have environmental impacts that are both local and global. Moreover, in recent years, air quality has become a severe problem in many countries, and the interest to replace fossil fuels with renewable and sustainable energy sources has increased for reducing CO2 and methane emissions.
Ultrafine particle emissions: Comparison of waste-to-energy with coal- and biomass-fired power plants
Combustion processes are the dominant anthropogenic sources of particulate matter emissions to the atmosphere. Recently, special attention has been directed to the potential health effects of ultrafine particles (UFP) of diameters less than 0.1ÎŒm. Numerous research studies show that inhalation exposure to UFP can lead to exacerbation of lung and cardiovascular diseases and that the effect is more severe than that of fine and coarse particles. It has also been shown that UFP can generate more reactive oxygen species (ROS) than larger particles and are able to cross epithelial cells and translocate to extrapulmonary organs.


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