|Interoperability: Integration, testing, and compliance certification to manage grid technology risks|
The energy industry is investing billon of euros to revamp and modernize the electricity sector worldwide and the smart grid concept is the new paradigm. Governments and industry players are looking for the ‚Äúkey‚ÄĚ element to assure that thousands or even millions of components in a modernized electric system can operate and communicate with each other seamlessly. This key element we are referring is the interoperability.
|Prosumer microgrids: How the smart grid can be built bottom-up|
The power sector is evolving to a more distributed and participatory system, with the combined drive of competitive renewable generation, storage technologies, electric vehicles, together with increasing needs to cut down emissions and enhanced capabilities of microgrid technology. Building on prosumer microgrids, the transition to a smarter grid can be accelerated.
|Smart vehicles for smart grids, smart grids for smart vehicles|
Smart electric vehicles can become a key player for smart grid deployment. The synergy between smart electric vehicles and smart grids comes mainly from the vehicle electric storage capacity from the battery. This battery allows the vehicle to interact with the grid not only as energy consumer, but also as energy storage point, using a bidirectional electric fl ow charger, known as V2G technology (Vehicle to Grid).
|Finding the right balance|
Advances in technology are helping to lower the cost of CSP plant construction, and increasingly it is the smallest components, such as bearings, that are making solar power ever more affordable. Parts that enable CSP operators to optimise efficiency, lower maintenance requirements and extend the lifespan of their technology are vital if the industry is to find the right balance between renewable energy and fossil fuels.
|Southern Africa, a growing area for Spanish renewable companies|
The Spanish companies have performed extremely well in rounds I and II, held in November 2011 and March 2012, respectively. The know-how and experience acquired let us be very optimistic about the forthcoming round III (closing on August 19th 2013) and the performance of the Spanish companies.
|Spanish companies lead the deployment of renewables in South Africa|
Miguel Pérez de Lema
The African representative of the BRICS holds good prospects for stability and economic growth, for which it needs to increase its power generation capacity. According to these perspectives, South Africa has initiated the development of a program to modernize its power grid where renewables have a role.
|Electric Vehicles in Europe|
Electric mobility is a pending task for Europe. Attending at Figure 1, in 2012 only the 25,8% (47.700 units) of the stock of PHEV, BEV and FCEV1 in the world were circulating in our continent. Some important technical and commercial drawbacks, i.e short autonomy and price; as well as insuffi cient incentives and a lack of efforts to disseminate the personal and social advantages of using this new technology, are the main reasons which explain the slow penetration of EVs in our markets.
|Europe must speed up to reach targets|
The share of renewables in the European energy mix is increasing dramatically, but the corresponding development of the energy infrastructure, particularly in the distribution network, is lagging sorely behind. If these trends continue, we may be heading for a (CO2-free) train wreck in the not-so-distant future.
|The four tentacles of the smart grid: From telecontrol towards intelligent self-healing|
It is not easy to define the concept of smart grid due to it is an evolution of the current network. However we may try to approach the smart grid by describing the various parts involved in this concept: smart network (SN), smart operation (SO), smart metering (SM) and smart generation (SG).
|Smart secondary substation management device|
The aim of this paper is to describe a new device that will be installed into the smart secondary substations. It allows the full management of the substation and integrates control, protection, measurement and communication functionalities, on both sides, low voltage and medium voltage side. This device is integrated into a global architecture of automation network as an additional element and it communicates upstream with central systems and downstream with smart meters installed in low voltage network that is supplied by the substation, managing their information and allowing remote operation on them. The device has been designed with a modular and scalable feature, in this way it provides a standard solution for different topologies of secondary substations.
|Substations go fully digital but stay compatible|
Simon Richards, Denis Chatefrou
The fully digital substation replaces the kilometres of copper hardwiring and proprietary devices of conventional installations with a software-based solution that builds interoperability today and tomorrow.
|Retrofitting brings efficient monitoring to PV power plants|
Every so often the term ‚Äúretrofit‚ÄĚ comes up in discussions on PV strategies or projects. Retrofitting means adding new technology or features to an existing system, and in a retrofit project, components may have to be added or replaced to achieve the goal. A power plant usually has a life span of 20-30 years. What factors could lead to retrofitting in this period?
|Influence of the encapsulant layer on Potential Induced Degradation (PID)|
Pamela Ca√Ī√≥n S√°nchez
For several years photovoltaic industry has seen how power output of PV modules degrades due to the stress exerted by system voltage bias. Potential Induced Degradation (PID) is the name given to this degradation, which appears due to leakage currents between the frame and the cells. Specifically, this effect is linked to leakage currents passed from the active layer of the cells, through the module components (encapsulant, glass), to the frame.
|Parabolic trough solar thermal power ‚Äď where and how to be most competitive|
Although the technology used in some parabolic trough solar plant components is mature and the thermodynamic processes have improved, there is still room for a further reduction in energy costs ‚Äď by up to 50% in 10 to 15 years according to forecasts by the German Aerospace Center (DLR).